In Peru, at least as early as the 16th century – 20th century, a unit of land area. The usual value is approximately 3,493 square meters (approximately 0.86 acres).

United Nations, 1966.

Some values for specific localities are:

Cuzco approximately 2,720 square meters (approximately 0.67 acres)
Puno approximately 4,608 square meters (approximately 1.14 acres)

Mason says that in Inca times, the topo was a unit of distance, about 7.25 kilometers, and “Areas were also figured by the topo, but the areal topo was only an acre or so.” Compare tupo.

J. Alden Mason.
The Ancient Civilizations of Peru. Rev. ed.
Hammondsworth (Midlesex): Penguin Books, 1968.

Page 234.


El topo, medida muy variable segun los lugares, usada por los Incas y por los Españoles en los primeros años de la conquista, ha desaparecido por completo en los países Sur-Americanos. Los metrólogos le asignan generalmente una extension de legua y media. (8)

(8) Véase, Medidas y Pesas de las provincias bajo el título «Medidas de Superficie.» Planillas b, Lam. I hasta XIV.

The topo, a unit varying greatly with location, used by the Incas and the Spanish in the early years of the conquest, has completely disappeared in South American countries. Metrologists usually assign a length of a legua and a half.

Valentin Balbin.
Sistema de Medidas y Pesas de la República Argentina.
Buenos Aires: Tipografia de M. Biedma, 1881.
Page 42.


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