In the Roman province of Baeticae in southern Spain, roughly the area of present-day western Andalusia, a unit of land area, 30 pedes by 180 pedes, so about a fiftieth of a hectare or a twentieth of an acre.
The actus quadratus on all sides is 120 pedes. Doubled it makes a iugerum, and because it came from joining [iungere, to join], it took the name “iugeri”. The country folk of the province of Baeticae call this actus an acnua; they call an area 30 pedes wide by 180 pedes long a “porca”.
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella.
De re rustica. Book 5, 1, 5.
(1st Century ce)
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