In Spain, a unit of mass, by the standard of Castile about 230.07 grams. chart symbol Different subdivisions were used for gold and silver chart symbol

Slightly different values, and different subdivisions, were used in the provinces. In Aragon the marco de Castile = 8 onces = 32 quartos = 128 adarmes = 4096 granos, making each grano of Aragon = 1 1/8 grano of Castile.


In Mexico, 20th century, a unit of mass, approximately 28.775 grams.

United Nations, 1966.


In Mexico, 16th century, a unit of length used in measuring fields, = 2⅞ varas.

Ward Barrett.
Jugerum and Caballeria in New Spain.
Agricultural History, vol. 53, no. 2 pages 423-437 (April 1979).

Mariano Galván Riviera, 1844. Excerpt in Spanish with English translation.


In Portugal, a unit of mass, = 8 onças, about 229.5 grams. link to chart showing relationships between Portuguese units of mass 


In the province of La Rioja, Argentina, ? – 19th centuries, a unit of irrigation water flow, defined by defining the size of the hole through which water was allowed to flow, = 8 pulgadas by 4 pulgadas. Compare miner's inch.

In the province of Catamarca, a similar unit, the marco oficial, was 9 by 9 pulgadas.

Balbín, 1881.


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