In Cambodia, 20ᵗʰ century, a unit of mass, = 60 kilograms.
United Nations, 1966.
In Laos, ? – 20ᵗʰ century, a unit of mass, = 60 kilograms.
[Thai. หาบ] In Thailand,? – 20ᵗʰ century, a unit of mass = 50 chang. After the metric standardization of 1923 = 60 kilograms. Sometimes called the “Siamese picul,” or hal or taam. Also romanized as harb. The Weights and Measures Act B.E. 2542 (1999) provides for a 60-kg customary unit, described in English translations as a “standard picul,” abbreviation p. It is however, a hap, and is so written and pronounced in Thai.
In the 19ᵗʰ century = 133.75 pounds avoirdupois. The Standards Dept. of the English Board of Trade evaluated a gilt gun metal standard in 1876 and found it to be 133.731 pounds avoirdupois.
W. A. Browne, 1879. Pages 275-6.
[Thai. หาบหลวง] standard metric picul 擔.
In 1959 the government of China defined the "market catty" as an even 500 grams. Thinking of the hap as = 100 Chinese catties makes it = 50 kg. As in 2, above, the Thai is actually hap, not picul.
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Last revised: 11 January 2019.