# Turin19th century

## Units of length

 before 1818 after 1818 miglio pertica 400 trabbuco 2 800 tesa 1 4/5 3 3/5 1400 raso or auna* 2 6/7 5 1/7 10 2/7 ~8229 piede liprando 1 1/6 3 1/3 6 12 4800 piede manuale 1½ 1¾ 5 9 18 7200 piede legale 48/41 72/41 432/205 1728/287 ~10.84 ~21.68 ~8672 piede geometrico 41/36 1 1/3 2 * 6 2/3 40 80 32,000 oncia 6 6 5/6 8 12 14 40 72 480 192,000 punto 12 72 82 96 144 * 480 864 1728 691,200 atomo 12 144 864 984 1152 1728 * 5760 10,368 20,736 8,294,400 0.30 3.57 42.814 256.883 292.561 342.511 513.766 599.394 1.712553 3.082596 6.165192 2.466 0.30mm 3.57mm 42.867mm 257.202mm 292.924mm 342.936mm 514.403mm 600.137mm 1.714678m 3.086420m 6.172m 2.469km

* The raso was a retail measure used, for example, for cloth, and was not divided into punti, atomi, etc, but rather into fractional parts: halves, thirds, fourths, sixths, eighths and sixteenths.

 raso meta meta terzi terzi terzi quarti quarti quarti quarti sesti sesti sesti sesti sesti sesti ottavi ottavi ottavi ottavi ottavi ottavi ottavi ottavi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi sedicesimi

As the absence of integral multipliers for the piede legale demonstrates, it was a late, non-local addition.

## Units of land area

 before 1818 after 1818 giornata stara 8 1/3 tavola or square pertica 12 100 square trabucco 4 48 400 square piede liprandi 36 144 1728 14,400 0.263956 9.502400 38.009599 456.115 3800.959 0.264644sq. m 9.525987sq. m 38.103948sq. m 457.247sq. m 3810.39sq. m

## Units of dry capacity

 before 1818 after 1818 sacco emina 5 coppo 8 40 mezzo coppo 2 16 80 cucchiaio 12 24 192 960 0.12 1.438 2.876 23.005556 115.028 0.12L 1.441L 2.882L 23.054986L 115.275L

## Special units of volume

Cubic units were formed in the usual way from units of length, but the way they were subdivided was unusual. For example, a piede cubo would consist of 1728 once cubo (at 12 once to the piede, = 12 × 12 × 12). However, the piede cubo was itself subdivided into 12 once di piede cubo, each of which contained 144 once cubo. Similiarly the once di piede cubo would be subdivided into 12 punti, and so on.

Name Nature Value before 1818,
cubic meters
Value after 1818,
cubic meters
trabucco camerale da muro A quantity of masonry work, a base of 1 square trabucco and a height of 10 once, = 6 × 6 × 10/12 = 30 cubic piede. 4.068342 4.083499
tesa for hay and straw; 125 piedi manuali cubi, which is = 5 piedi di tesa cuba. Like the manuali cubi, the piedi di tesa cuba is divided into 8 once.
tesa da legna for firewood; 1 square tesa as its base and 4 piedi manuali in height. 4.018116 4.033086
tesa da pozzi for wells; = 45 piedi manuali cubi 1.808152 1.814889
carro di pietra for rock; = 2592 cubic once 0.203417 0.204175
carro di sabbia for sand; = 2304 cubic once 0.180815 0.181489

## Units of liquid capacity

 before 1818 after 1818 carra bottale 1¼ brenta 8 10 pinte 36 288 360 boccale 2 72 576 720 quartino 2 4 144 1152 1440 bicchiero 2 4 8 288 2304 2880 171.1 342.3 684.5 1.369 49.284696 394.278 492.847 171.2mL 342.4mL 684.8mL 1.370L 49.306931L 394.455L 493.307L

## Units of mass

 before 1818 after 1818 rubbo libbra 25 marco 1½ 37½ oncia 8 12 300 ottavo 8 64 96 2400 denari 3 24 192 288 7200 grano 24 72 576 4608 6912 172,800 granotto 24 576 1728 13,824 110,592 165,888 4,147,200 2.223 53.363 1.281 3.842 30.737 245.896 368.845 9.221 2.224mg 53.368g 1.281g 3.843g 30.740g 245.920g 368.880g 9.222kg
 before 1818 after 1818 libbra medica oncia 12 dramma 8 96 scrupolo 3 24 288 grano 20 60 480 5760 53.363 1.067 3.202 25.614 307.370 53.368mg 1.067g 3.202g 25.617g 307.400g

The libbra medica = 10 once of the mercantile libbra.

 before 1818 after 1818 marco oncia 8 denari 24 192 carato 6 144 1152 grani 4 24 576 4608 granotti 24 96 576 13,824 110,592 2.223 53.363 213.45 1.281 30.737 245.896 2.224mg 53.368mg 213.47mg 1.281g 30.740g 245.920g

Sources: Tavole,

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