Punjab, India
units of land area

By 1977, cadastral data throughout the state had been metrified, based on 1 meter = 1.0936138 yards. The tables below show the various ways in which local units were converted to English units. for a fuller discussion, with metric units, go here.

map showing the districts in the Punjab

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Systems employing the karam, sarshi, marla and kanal

“In all areas consolidated on the basis of the standard measure of 66 inches, i.e., Karam or Gatha” [= 66 inches]:

     

kanal

8

   

marla

20

160

 

sarsahi

9

180

1440

square karam

1

9

180

1440

karam = 66 inches

3.3611111
sq. yds

30.25
sq. yds

605
sq. yds

1
acre

“In the areas consolidated on the basis of the local measure and the non-consolidated areas of Amritsar, Gurdaspur, (except Shapur Hill Circle and Chak Andar in Pathankot tehsil, Ferozepur (except Fazilka) and the erstwhile princely State of Faridkot:”

     

kanal

 
   

marla

20

193.60

 

sarsahi

9

180

square karam

1

9

180

karam = 60 inches

2.777777
sq. yds

25
sq. yds

500
sq. yds

1
acre

“In the areas consolidated on the basis of the local measure and the non-consolidated areas of Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Anandpur Sahib (Ropar) and the Shahpur hill Circle in Gurdaspur District:”

     

kanal

 
   

marla

20

210.80

 

sarsahi

9

180

square karam

1

9

180

karam = 57.5 inches

2.5511188
sq. yds

22.96
sq. yds

459
sq. yds

1
acre

“In the area consolidated on the basis of the local measure and the non-consolidated areas of the erstwhile princely State of Kapurthala:”

     

kanal

 
   

marla

20

239

 

sarsahi

9

180

square karam

1

9

180

karam = 54 inches

2.25
sq. yds

20.25
sq. yds

405
sq. yds

1
acre

Systems employing the karam (or gatha), biswansi, biswa and bigha

“In the areas consolidated on the basis of the local measure and the non-consolidated areas of Ludhiana District and the erstwhile princely State of Jind.”

     

bigha

 
   

biswa

20

32

 

biswansi

20

400

square karam

1

20

400

karam or gatha = 99 inches

7.5625
sq. yds

151.25
sq. yds

3025
sq. yds

1
acre

“In the areas consolidated on the basis of the local measure and the non-consolidated area of Fazilka (Ferozepur), Ropar (except Anandpur Sahib and the erstwhile princely State of Patiala, Nabha and Malerkotla.”

     

bigha

 
   

biswa

20

96

 

biswansi

20

400

square karam

1

20

400

karam or gatha = 57.157 inches

2.5207736
sq. yds

50.41547
sq. yds

10008.3094
sq. yds

1
acre

Quotations are from the Punjab Land Records Manual.

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