Denmark
premetric units of land area

Two distinct systems of units were used simultaneously for Danish agricultural land. To add to the confusion, most of the names of the units in the two systems were identical. One system (arealenhed) was strictly geometrical. The other was a seed measure of land, based on the land's productivity. So, for example, in the cadastral survey of 1683, a piece of land was first measured in tønde land, and then its value in tønde hartkorn was determined. One tønde land might be worth as little as 2 tønde hartkorn, while the most fertile tønde land was rated at 20 tønde hartkorn. Thus, because they measure different things, no conversion factor relating the two systems is possible, because it is impossible to assign a geometric area to the tønde hartkorn.

However, by the second half of the 19th century commentators regularly give an area for the tønde hartkorn and its subdivisions. The area originally specified for the tønde land (14,000 square alen) is assigned, not to the tønde hartkorn, but to the smaller tønde sædeland. According to one source (Klimpert's Lexikon, 2nd edition, page 386), an order of 20 January 1788 made the tønde hartkorn 2.83 hectares (5.66 in wooded areas), 1.935 ha in Bornholm, in the islands 5.5 ha, and in Jutland an average of 14.5 hectares. The 5.5 hectares  corresponds to later values.

arealenhed (area units)

 

 

tønde land

         

skæppe

8

     

fjerdingkar

4

32

     

album

3

12

96

penning

4

12

48

384

square rode

1 11/24

5 5/6

17½

70

560

square alen

25

36 11/24

145 5/6

437½

1750

14,000

before 1683


sq. m

*
-


sq. m

58.4
sq. m


sq. m


sq. m


sq. m

after 1683

0.3946
sq. m

*
-

14.38
sq. m

57.54
sq. m

172.6
sq m

690.48
sq. m

5,523.84
sq. m

after 1835

0.3940
sq. m

9.85
sq. m

14.36
sq. m

57.45
sq. m

172.4
sq. m

689.5
sq. m

5516.28
sq. m

*Before 1698, the rode = 6 alen, instead of 5, and so doesn't fit the chart for that period.

jordværedienhed (land value units)

plov

         

 

tønde hartkorn

8

tønde havre

2

16

tønde sædeland

2

4

32

     

skæpper hartkorn

2

4

8

64

     

 fjerdingkar

4

8

16

32

256

     

album

3

12

24

48

96

768

penge

4

12

48

96

192

384

3072

sq. rode

5 5/6

23 1/3

70

280

560

1120

2240

17920

 Doursther
p 382, 401, 500, 539

9.85
sq. m

57.46
sq. m

229.84
sq. m

689.53
sq. m

2758.11
sq. m

5516.22
sq. m

11,032.5
sq. m

22,064.9
sq. m

176,519
sq. m

 

     

bol

plov

2

   

fjerding

2

4

 

otting

2

4

8

tønde land

12

24

48

96

       
X

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