bushel as a mass unit,
United States

USDA Standard Bushel Weights
Crop Pounds per bushel
Soybeans, wheat 60
Flax, rye, shelled corn, grain sorghum 56
Corn-and-cob meal (ground ear corn) 45
Cracked corn, corn meal 50
Barley 48
Oats 32
Apples (Eastern) 42
Apples (Colorado) 40
Peaches 50

FCIC-25010(LAM) page 158, 262-264. (Feb. 2001)

R. S., 2919, (1866)

Legal weight of bushel for certain products. — For the purpose of estimating the duties on importation of grain the number of bushels shall be ascertained by weight, instead of by measuring; and sixty pounds of wheat, fifty-six pounds of corn, fifty-six pounds of rye, forty-eight pounds of barley, thirty-two pounds of oats, sixty pounds of pease, and forty-two pounds of buckwheat avoirdupois weight shall respectively be estimated as a bushel.

The buckwheat part was repealed by the McKinley Tariff Act of 1890.

Many states passed laws, mostly in the 19th century, setting a mass equivalent to the bushel for particular commodities. To save space, the states are indicated by their modern postal abbreviations.

Mass Equivalent to a Bushel, set by States
Commodity State Mass,
Apples, quinces or pears, fresh ME 44
OR, WA 45
VT 46
MI, IA, MO 48
NJ 50
WI 57
Apples, quinces or pears, dried OH, MI 22
GA, KY, IL, IA, NE, MO, KS 24
NJ, WV, IN 25
VA, WI, MN, OR, WA 28
Barley LA 32
AZ, WA 45
OR 46
PA, MD, GA, KY 47
IN, IL, MI, WI, MN, IA, NE, MO, KS, CO, MT, Dakota Territory
CA 50
Beans NH, VT, NJ, VA, WV, GA, OH, IN, KY, IL, MI,
WI, IA, NE, MO, KS, CO, MT, WA, Dakota territory
NY 62
ME 64
AZ (small white beans) 60
AZ (other beans) 55
CT (white beans) 60
Beets WI, MT, WA 50
ME, VT, CT, Dakota 60
Berries IA, RI 32
MI 40
Bluegrass seed CO, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, MI, MO, MT, NE, VA, WV 14
Bran Dakota, IL, IA, KS, KY, MO, NE 20
Broom-corn seed Dakota territory, IA 30
Buckwheat CA, Dakota territory 40
MI, OR, WA 42
VT 46
CT, ME, MD, MA, MI, NY, PA 48
IN, KS, NJ, OH, WI 50
C0, IL, IA, MO, MT, NE, VA, WV 52
KY 56
Castor beans KS 44
KY 45
IL, IN, IA, MI, MN, NE 46
Carrots ME, MT, VT 50
CT 55
RI 60
Cherries IA 40
Chestnuts VA 57
Clover seed MT 45
CO, Dakota territory, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, MI, MN,
PA 62
NJ 64
Coal (anthracite) KY 76
Dakota territory, IL, IA, KS, NE, VA, WV 80
Coal (bituminous) CO, MI, MO, OH, WV 80
IN (mined out of state) 70
IN (mined in state) 80
Coal (cannel) OH 70
Coke IA 38
OH, PA 40
Corn (ears) IN 68
CA, Dakota territory, IL, IA, KS, KY, MI, NE, OH, VA 70
Corn (shelled) CA 52
AZ 54
all other states and territories 56
Corn (cracked) MA 50
Cornmeal DE sifted 44
DE unsifted 48
IL 48
CO, CT, IN, KS, KY, ME, NH, RI, VA 50
Cotton seed GA 30
MO 33
Cranberries MI 40
Currants IA 40
Flaxseed KS 54
IL, NJ, NY 55
Dakota territory, IA, KY, MI, MO, NE, OH,
Gooseberries IA 40
Grapes IA 40
Hair (for plaster) IL, KS, KY, NE, VA 8
ME 11
Hempseed CO, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, MI, MO, NE, OH, VA 44
MT 52
Hominy OH 60
Hungarian grass seed VA 48
KS, KY, MI, OH 50
NE 60
Lime KY 35
MI 70
CO, Dakota territory, IL, IA, KS, NE 80
Malt NE 30
KS 32
OH 34
IL, VA 38
Mangold wurtzel ME, RI 60
Millet seed NE 40
IA 45
KS, KY, MI, OH, VA 50
Oats MD 26
ME, NH, NJ, PA 30
AZ, CA, CO, CT, Dakota territory, IL, KS, KY, LA, MA, MI,
IA 33
NE 34
MT 35
OR, WA 36
Onions IN 48
CT, OH, RI, WA 50
Dakota territory, ME, MA, VT 52
MI 54
CO, IL, IA, KS, KY, MO, MT, NE, VA 57
Onion sets NE 25
VA 28
Orchard grass seed MI, VA 14
Osage-orange seed IA, NE 32
MI 33
VA 34
Parsnips CT 45
MO 50
RI 60
Peaches, fresh VA 18
Peaches, dried MI, MN, OR, WA, WI 28
IL, IN, IA, KS, MO, NE, OH, WV 33
GA (peeled and dried) 38
KY 39
VA (peeled and dried) 40
Peanuts VA 22
Pease CT, Dakota territory, KY, ME, MI, NE, NH, NY, OH, VT, VA 60
Pease, ground KY 24
  GA 25
Plums, dried MI 28
Potatoes Washington territory  50
OH 58
CO, CT, Dakota territory, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, ME,
Potatoes, sweet KY 45
Dakota territory 46
KS, NE, OH 50
IL 55
MI, VA 56
RI 60
Rape-seed WI 50
Redtop seeds VA 12
MI 14
Rutabagas WI 56
CT, ME 14
Rye LA 32
CA 54
PA 58
all other states and territories 56
Rye meal CT, ME, NH, RI 50
Salt IN, IA, KS, KY, MO, MT, NE, VA 50
MI 56
NY 56
WI 60
PA (foreign ground salt) 70
MA 70
CO, Dakota territory 80
Salt, coarse IL 50
  PA (foreign salt) 80
Salt, fine IL, KY 55
  PA (foreign salt) 62
Sorghum seed IA, NE 30
Sugar beets CT, ME, RI 60
Timothy seed Dakota territory 52
MT, NY 44
CO, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, MI, MO, NE, OH, VT, VA, WV 45
WI 46
Turnip CT, ME 50
MT, Washington territory 50
IL, IA, KS, NE, VA 55
MI 58
Dakota territory, KY, RI, VT 60
Vegetable RI, Washington territory 50
Wheat all states, except not by law in RI 60

Currently the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture publishes the following conversions for crops customarily sold by the bushel. They echo the old federal legal equivalents (except in the case of buckwheat) and add many other crops.

Commodity Pounds
Almonds 37
Apples 48
Apricots 48
Avocados 50
Barley 48
Beans, dry edible 60
Buckwheat 48
Carrots (without tops) 50
Canola 50
Corn, shelled 56
Corn, ear 70
Eggplant 33
Escarole/Endive 25
Flaxseed 56
Lentils 60
Millet 50
Milo 56
Mustard Seed 60
Oats 32
Peaches 48
Peanuts, Virginia 17
Peanuts, Runners 21
Peanuts, Spanish 25
Pears 48-50
Peas, Austrian Winter 60
Peas, Green unshelled 28-30
Peppers, Green 25
Plums/Prunes 56
Popcorn, shelled 56
Potatoes 60
Rapeseed 50
Rice 45
Rye 56
Safflower 40
Snap Beans 28-32
Sorghum, Grain 56
Spinach 25
Sunflower 30
Sweet Potatoes 55
Triticale 56
Walnuts 50
Wheat 60

Oscar Oldberg.
A Manual of Weights and Measures.
Chicago: W. T. Keener, 1889.

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