used with the Gregorian calendar

That the era used with the Gregorian calendar in the West is based on the ostensible birth year of Christ (see Christian era) grates on many, especially in non-Christian countries that have adopted this calendar.

To remove the religious association, the initials ce, for “of the common era,” are widely substituted for ad; bce replaces bc and stands for “before the common era.”  That is the house style of this Web site.


The Chula-Sakarat era is sometimes used, which began in 638 ce.


In India several eras have been used with the Gregorian calendar.

The Vikrama Samvat era (abbr. V.S.) began on 14 October 58 bce.

The Saka era began on 3 March 78 ce. 22 March 1957 ce was the first day of the year 1879 in the Saka Era.


In Indonesia, on the island of Java, an era known as Aji Saka is used with a 354-day lunar calendar, which is all we have been able to learn about it.

Fasli era; F.E. 1404 is 1994 ce.


A “National Era” was defined that started with the founding of the imperial dynasty, which by tradition occurred in 660 bce. The national era has been little used in recent years. To convert a date ne to ad, subtract 660.


An era that begins in 2333 bce has been used.


In Thailand, a Buddhist Era is used (B.E.), which begins with the enlightenment of the Buddha. Years in this era begin on 1 January but are 543 greater than the year ce, thus 1990 ce was 2533 be.

The Bangkok or Rata Nakosinook era began in 1781 ce.

home | time index | search |  contact drawing of envelope |  contributors | 
help | privacy | terms of use