Rulers of the Achaemenid Empire

Ruler Reign Comment
Cyrus II 559-530 bce  
Cambyses II 529-522 bce son of Cyrus II
Bardiya/Smerdis;  522 bce consult a history
Darius I 521-486 bce cousin of Cambyses II
Xerxes I 485-465 bce son of Darius I;
Artaxerxes I 464-424/3 bce son of Xerxes I
Xerxes II 424/3 bce son of Artaxerxes I;
Sogdianus 424/3 bce brother of Xerxes II;
Darius II 423-405 bce half-brother of Sogdianus
Artaxerxes II 404-359 bce son of Darius II
Artaxerxes III 358-338 bce son of Artaxerxes II;
Artaxerxes IV Arses 337-336 bce poisoned
Darius III 335-330 bce nephew of Artaxerxes IV

The empire ended with the defeat of Darius III by Alexander the Great at the battle of Gaugamela in 330 bce.

Henry Heitmann-Gordon.
The Rulers of the Persian Empire.
Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions online (ARIo) Project.
The ARIo Project, 2019.


Wikipedia's entry on the Achaemenid_Empire is one of their best efforts.


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