During the period commencing at 2 o'clock antemeridian on the first Sunday of April of each year and ending at 2 o'clock antemeridian on the last Sunday of October of each year, the standard time of each zone established by sections 261 to 264 of this title, as modified by section 265 of this title, shall be advanced one hour and such time as so advanced shall for the purposes of such sections 261 to 264, as so modified, be the standard time of such zone during such period; however, (1) any State that lies entirely within one time zone may by law exempt itself from the provisions of this subsection providing for the advancement of time, but only if that law provides that the entire State (including all political subdivisions thereof) shall observe the standard time otherwise applicable during that period, and (2) any State with parts thereof in more than one time zone may by law exempt either the entire State as provided in (1) or may exempt the entire area of the State lying within any time zone.
It is hereby declared that it is the express intent of Congress by this section to supersede any and all laws of the States or political subdivisions thereof insofar as they may now or hereafter provide for advances in time or changeover dates different from those specified in this section.
For any violation of the provisions of this section the Secretary of Transportation or his duly authorized agent may apply to the district court of the United States for the district in which such violation occurs for the enforcement of this section; and such court shall have jurisdiction to enforce obedience thereto by writ of injunction or by other process, mandatory or otherwise, restraining against further violations of this section and enjoining obedience thereto.
Section 2(a) of Public Law 99-359 provided that: “The Congress finds
“(1) that various studies of governmental and nongovernmental agencies indicate that daylight saving time over an expanded period would produce a significant energy savings in electrical power consumption;
“(2) that daylight saving time may yield energy savings in other areas besides electrical power consumption;
“(3) that daylight saving time over an expanded period could serve as an incentive for further energy conservation by individuals, companies, and the various governmental entities at all levels of government, and that such energy conservation efforts could lead to greatly expanded energy savings; and
“(4) that the use of daylight saving time over an expanded period could have other beneficial effects on the public interest, including the reduction of crime, improved traffic safety, more daylight outdoor playtime for the children and youth of our Nation, greater utilization of parks and recreation areas, expanded economic opportunity through extension of daylight hours to peak shopping hours and through extension of domestic office hours to periods of greater overlap with the European Economic Community.”
Executive Order No. 11751, Dec. 15, 1973, 38 Federal Register 34725, provided:
By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 3(b) of the Emergency Daylight Savings Time Energy Conservation Act of 1973 Public Law 93-182) (hereinafter “the Act”) (formerly set out above), section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. The Secretary of Transportation (hereinafter “the Secretary”) is hereby designated and empowered to exercise the authority vested in me by section 3(b) of the Act (formerly set out above) to grant an exemption from section 3(a) of the Act (which establishes daylight saving time as standard time), or a realignment of a time zone limit, pursuant to a proclamation of a Governor of a State finding that the exemption or realignment is necessary to avoid undue hardship or to conserve fuel in the State or a part thereof.
Section 2. In deciding to grant or deny an exemption or realignment, the Secretary shall consider, among other things, the policy of the United States, as expressed in sections 2 and 4 of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (80 Stat. 107, 108; 15 U.S.C. 260, 261), to promote the adoption and observance of uniform time within the standard time zones of the United States and the convenience of commerce, as well as possible energy savings, undue hardship to large segments of the population, and the possible impact on the success of and cooperation with the national energy conservation program.
Section 3. In carrying out his responsibilities under this order, the Secretary shall, as he deems necessary, consult with the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the Federal Energy Office (or any agency which hereafter may succeed to its functions), and any other interested agency and he may call upon those agencies for information and advice. Each interested department or agency shall assist the Secretary, as necessary, to carry out the provisions of this order.
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