Titulo IX
De los pesos y medidas.

From Libro 9 in tome 4 of the 1805 edition of the Novisima Recopilacion. The English translations are by Daniel Rosenthal, and were commissioned by Sizes for this web page.

Novisima Recopilacion de las Leyes de Espana.
Divida en XII Libros
En que se reforma la Recopilacion publicadá por el Señor Don Felipe II. en el año de 1567, reimpresa últimamente en el de 1775:
Y se incorporan las pragmáticas, cédulas; decretos, órdenes y resoluciones Reales, y otras providencias no recopiladas, y expedidas hasta el de 1804.
Mandada formar
por el Señor Don Carlos IV.
Impresa en Madrid, año 1805.

LEY I.

Don Alonso en Segovia año 1347 pet. 28 y 29, y en Alcalá año 1348; y D. Felipe. II. en el Escorial por pragm. de 24 de Junio de 568.

Igualdad de los pesos y medidas en todos los pueblos; y órden que se ha de observar en ellos.

Porque en nuestros Reynos y Señoríos hay medidas y pesos departidos, por lo qual los que venden y compran reciben muchos daños y engaños; por ende ordenamos y mandamos, que en todas las ciudades, villas y lugares de nuestros Reynos los pesos y medidas sean todos unos en la forma siguiente: que el oro y la plata y vellon de moneda, que se pese por el marco de Colonia, que haya en él ocho onzas; y cobre, y fierro y estaño, y plomo y azogue, y miel y cera, y aceyte y lana, y todas las otras mercaderías que se venden á peso, que se pesen por marco de teja, en que haya en el marco ocho onzas, y en la libra dos marcos, y en la arroba veinte y cinco libras, y en el quintal de hierro cien libras destas; salvo el g uintal de hierro que se usa y pesa en las herrerías y puertos de la mar do se hace y se carga, que se use segun que fasta aquí se usó; y el quintal del aceyte en Sevilla y en la frontera de diez arrobas el quintal, como se usó hasta aquí: y en las villas y lugares que hay arrelde, que haya en el arrelde quatro libras del dicho peso. Otrosí tenemos por bien, que el pan y el vino, y las otras cosas todas que se suelen medir, que se midan y se vendan por la medida toledana, que es en la hanega doce celemines, y en la cántara ocho azumbres, y media fanega, y celemin y medio celemin, y media cántara, y azumbre y media azumbre á esta razon. Y otrosí, que el paño y lienzo y sayal, y las otras cosas que se venden á varas, que se vendan por la vara castellana: y en cada vara que den una pulgada al traves, y que midan el paño por esquina. Y declaramos, que la vara castellana de que se ha de usar en todos estos Reynos, sea la que ha y tiene la ciudad de Burgos: y que para este efecto las ciudades y villas que son cabeza de partido en estos nuestros Reynos hagan traer el padron é marco de la vara castellana de la dicha ciudad de Burgos, el qual guarden, y por él se den y marquen las varas que se gastaren en aquel partido: y qualesquier que usaren por otros pesos ó por otras medidas, salvo de aquellas que dichas son, ó en otra manera de la que dicha es, que cayan é incurran en las penas que las leyes, y los Derechos y fueros disponen contra los que usan de medidas y pesos falsos, y que las penas sean para aquellos que las acostumbran llevar. (ley 1. , tit. 13. lib. 5. R.)

 

King Alfonso in Segovia, in the year 1347, petitions 28 and 29, and in Alcalá in the year 1348; and King Philip II at the Escorial by pragmatic sanction¹ of the 24th June 568².

Equality of weights and measures for all people; and the order with which they shall be observed.

Because in our Kingdoms and Dominions there are different weights and measures, so that those who buy and sell are subject to much damage and deceit; therefore we order and command, that in all the cities, towns and villages of our Kingdoms, the weights and measures shall all be the same as follows:

gold and silver and vellon [a copper-silver alloy] coins, shall be weighed by the marco of Cologne, which shall have eight onzas in it;

and copper, and iron and tin, and lead and quicksilver, and honey and wax, and oil and wool, and all the other goods that are sold by weight, shall be weighed by the marco de teja, that there shall be eight onzas to the marco, and two marcos to the libra, and 25 libra to the arroba, and 100 libra of these to the quintal de hierro; except for the quintal de hierro used and weighed in forges and seaports where [iron] is made and loaded, which shall be used as it has been used until now; and the quintal of oil in Seville and on the border, with ten arrobas to a quintal, as has been used until now:

and in the towns and villages where the arrelde exists, the arrelde shall have four libra of that weight.

Furthermore we shall take for good, that bread and wine, and all other things that are usually measured [by volume], shall be measured and sold by the measure of Toledo, which is the hanega, with twelve celemines to a hanega, and eight azumbres to the cántara, and media3 fanega, and the celemín and medio celemín and the media cántara, and the azumbre and medio azumbre at this ratio.

And furthermore, that cloth and linen and sackcloth, and other things that are sold by varas, shall be sold by the vara of Castile: that each vara shall have a pulgada across,4 and that the cloth shall be measured by the edge. And we declare that the Castilian vara that is to be used in all these Kingdoms, shall be the one that exists and is to be had in the city of Burgos: and for this purpose, the cities and towns that are capitals of a jurisdiction in these our kingdoms shall bring the standard and frame5 of the Castilian vara from the said city of Burgos, which they shall preserve, and use it to produce and mark the varas used in that jurisdiction:

and that whoever uses other weights or other measures, except for those that are established, or in another manner than what is established, shall be subject to and incur the penalties which the laws, and rights and privileges provide against those who use false measures and weights, and that the penalties shall be those that are customarily applied. (Law 1. Title 13. Book 5. R. )

 

Notes

1. “Pragmatic sanction” indicates that a law or regulation was issued by a competent authority, but was not a royal decree or general order. “Ley que procediendo de competente autoridad, se diferenciaba de los reales decretos y órdenes generales en las fórmulas de su publicacion.” Dicc. Academia.

2. The year was, of course, 1568. It appears to have been the usage in these legal headings that the 1 for thousand occurs in the first year mentioned, but is optional for later dates. Compare the headings for the other laws.

3. In Spanish “media” or “medio” means “half”, and it is part of the names of many units. Translating it as “half” results in terms that are neither Spanish nor English, such as “half-fanega”, so we don't. But the reader should be aware of the meaning.

4. Here the law is speaking of the yardstick itself and how to use it, not the unit. A vara is not basically a unit of area. The cloth is to be measured along one edge of the yardstick, not, for example, diagonally.

5. “Frames” translating the word “marco”:  One meaning of marco is "a standard", basically synonymous with padron. One meaning of marca in the Academy's dictionary is “El instrumento con que se marca ó señala alguna cosa, para diferenciarla de otras ó para denotar su calidad, peso ó tamaño.” In that case, the law would be explicitly requiring the cities to obtain both a vara standard and an instrument for subdividing “varasticks” made to the length of the standard.

La Academia Española.
Diccionario de la Langua Castellana. 10th ed.
Madrid: Imprenta Nacional, 1852.
Page 440.

LEY II.

D. Juan II. en Toledo año 1436 pet. 1 y 2, y en Madrigal año 438 pet. 12; y D. Fernando y D.ª Isabel en Tortosa por pragm. de 496.

Cumplimiento de las leyes insertas respectivas al uso de pesos y medidas; y pena de los contrarventores.

Por quanto nos ha sido hecha relacion, quanta desórden hay en estos nuestros Reynos por la diversidad y diferencia que hay entre unas tierras y otras en las medidas de pan y vino, y que en una comarca y unos lugares hay las medidas mayores y en otras menores; y aun nos es fecha relacion, que en un mesmo lugar hay una medida para comprar y otra para vender, de que algunas veces los compradores y otras veces los vendedores reciben engaño y agravio, y dello se siguen pleytos y contiendas; sobre lo qual el Señor Rey Don Juan nuestro padre de gloriosa memoria, cuya anima Dios haya, en las Córtes que hizo en Madrid el año qué pasó de 35 años, hizo y ordenó una ley con ciertos capítulos, que en este caso disponen larga y expresamente, su tenor de los quales es este que se sigue.

D. Enrique II, en Toro año 369 pet. 1, y en Burgos año 373 pet. 8; y D. Enrique IV. en Toledo año 462 pet. 24.

“Item, que en todos los pesos que en qualquier manera hubiere en los mis Reynos y Señoríos, que sean las libras iguales, de manera que haya en cada libra diez y seis onzas, y no mas; y que esto sea en todas las mercaderías, y carne y pescado; y en todas las otras cosas que se acostumbran vender y vendieren por libras; so pena que qualquiera que lo contrario hiciere, incurra en las penas de los que usan pesas falsas.

Item, que toda cosa que se vertdiere por arroba en todos mis Reynos y Señoríos, que haya en cadá arroba veinte y cinco libras, y no mas ni ménos; y en cada quintal quatro arrobas de las [email protected]; y el que lo contrario hiciere, incurra en las dichas penas.”

D. Juan II. en Madrid año 435 pet. 31.

“Item, que la medida del vino, así de arrobas como de cántaras; y azumbres y medias azumbres y quartillos, que sean la medida toledana; y en todos los mis Reynos y Señoríos no se compren ni vendan por granado ni por menudo, salvo por esta medida : y no embargante que digan algunas ciudades, villas y lugares y comarcas; que tienen de privilegio, y de uso y de costumbre de vender ó de comprar por mayor ó menor medida, que todavía se venda por la dicha medida, so las dichas penas.

Item, que todo el pan que se hobiere de vender y comprar, que se venda y compre por la medida de la ciudad de Avila, y esto así en las hanegas, como en los celemines ó quartillos; y que esto se guarde en tódos los mis Reynos y Señoríos, no embargante que digan; que tienen de privilegio, ó uso ó costumbre de comprar ó vender por otra medida: pero si alguno ó algunos tienen hechas algunas rentas ó obligaciones por algun pan; que paguen la tal renta, ó obligacion que así hicieron, segun la medida que se usaba al tiempo que así se obligaron; pero que no compren ni vendan salvo por la dicha medida de la dicha ciudad de Avila, so pena que el que lo contrario hiciere, incurra en las dichas penas.” La qual dicha ley fué despues confirmada por el dicho Señor Rey D. Juan en las Cortes que hizó en la ciudad de Toledo el año de 36, y asimismo por el Señor Rey D. Enrique nuestro hermano en las Cortes que hizo en la dicha ciudad de Toledo el año que pasó de 62; las quales mandamos, que se guarden y cumplan como en ellas se contiene: y en guardándolas y cumpliéndolas, todas las personas destos nuestros Reynos usen, y las Justicias las hagan usar de aquí adelante, de las dichas medidas en las compras y ventas, y en las datas y receptas, y en las cuentas, y obligaciones y contratos; y censos y arrendamientos que de aquí adelante se hicieren; conviene á saber, en el pan por la medida de Avila, que face doce celemines la fanega, y en los medios celemines á este respecto; y en el vino por la medida de Toledo, que haya á ocho azumbres por cántara. Y mandarnós á los Concejos de las otras ciudades y villas de nuestros Reynos y cabezas de los dichos partidos, que envien á las ciudades de Toledo y Avila á tomar y concertar medidas para ellos de pan y vino, é iguales de las suso dichas, y selladas con el sello de la ciudad de donde las llevaren; y sean las medidas del Concejo, las de pan, de piedra ó de madera con chapas de hierro, y las medidas del vino, que sean de cobre; y las resciban por ante Escribano: y gende en adelante las otras medidas de pan y vino que se hobieren de hacer, se hagan conformes é iguales con las dichas medidas, y selladas, y no de otra guisa; y qualquiera que con otra medida midiere, salvo por las dichas medidas, que por la primera vez que le fuere probado, caya é incurra en pena de mil maravedís, y que le quiebren públicamente la tal medida; y se ponga en la picota; y por la segunda caya é incurra en pena de tres mil maravedís, y esté diez dias en la cadena; y por la tercera vez le sea dada pena de falso: y en esta misma pena cayá é incurra gualquier carpintero ó calderero, ó otro oficial que de otra guisa hiciere las medidas de pan y vino. Y por quitar la ocasion de errar, y porque lo suso dicho mejor se guarde, mandamos y defendemos, que de aquí adelante ningun Escribano sea osado de hacer ni rescibir contrato ni obligacion de venta, ni censo ni arrendamiento, ni por otra causa alguna, de pan, salvo por nombre de la dicha medida de Avila, ni del vino, salvo por nombre de la medida de Toledo; ni Escribano alguno la resciba, ni dé signada obligacion ni contrato, ni otra escritura alguna que suence por la medida vieja, ni por otra medida de pan ni de vino: so pena, que las personas que por otra manera contrataren, pague cad uno lo que montare la quantía del contrato ó deuda con el doblo; y demas que la tal obligacion y contrato sea en sí ninguna y de ningun valor y efecto, y por tal le damos desde agora, no embargante que sea roborado por juramento, ó por otras qualsquier penas y firmezas; y demas, que el Escribano que tal contrato ó obligacion hiciere, pierda el oficio de Escribanía, y sea inhábil para los usar dende adelante, y pague por cada vez diez mil maravedís de pena; de las quales dichas penas sea la mitad para la nuestra Cámara, y de la otra mitad sea la mitad para el que lo acusare, y la otra mitad para quien lo sentenciare, y para el que lo exectare. Y en quanto á los contratos que hasta aquí estan hechos, mandamos, que se paguen por las dichas medidas de Avila y de Toledo, al respecto de come sale, habiendo consideracion á las otras medidas que estan otorgadasl y que los mandamientos que se hobieren de de para executar los tales contatos; se den por hanegas y por cántaras de las dichas medidas de Avila y Toledo, y al dicho respecto, y no por las medidas viejas; ni los Jueces ni los Escribanos den de otra manera los mandamientos y sentencias que hubieren de dar; so pena que por la primera vez cada uno de os dichos Jueces y Escrbanos caya é incurra en pena de cinco mil maravedís, y por la segunda de diez mil, y por la tercera vez de veinte mil maravedís, repartidos en la manera suso dicha; y demas, que las sentencias y mandamientos, que de otra guisa se dieren, sean en sí ningunos y de ningun valor y efecto. Y mandamos á los de neutro Consejo, que den de esta niestra carta y pragmática-sancion nuestras cartas y sobre-cartas, selladas con nuestro sello, y libradas dellos, quantas vieren que son menester para todos los partidos, y ciudades, villas y lugares destos nuestros Reynos. Y asimismo mandamos á las Justicias de cada una de las dichas ciudades, y villas y l??U??gares, que cada una en su jurisdiccion con todo lo suso dicho, y executar las dichs penas en quien en ellas hobiere in currido. (ley 2. tit. 13. lib. 5. R)

 

King John the Second, in Toledo in the year 1436, petitions 1 and 2, and in Madrigal in the year 438, petition 12; and King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in Tortosa by pragmatic sanction of 496.

Compliance with the laws inserted concerning the use of weights and measures; and penalty for the offenders.

For we have been told about the disorder that exists in these our Kingdoms because of the diversity and difference between some lands and others concerning the measures of bread and wine, and that in one region and some places there are bigger measures and in others smaller ones; and that we have been told that even at the same place there is a measure to buy and another one to sell, that at some times buyers and at other times sellers are cheated and wronged, and that disputes and strife arise from it; about which our Lord the King John, our father of glorious memory, may his soul be with God, in the Cortes held in Madrid 35 years ago made and ordered a law with certain chapters, which in this case provide comprehensively and expressly, the text of which is what follows.

King Henry II, in Toro in the year 369, petition 1, and in Burgos in the year 373, petition 8; and King Henry IV in Toledo in the year 462, petition 24.

[Use of libra mandatory]

“Also, that all weights that in any manner exist in my Kingdoms and Dominions, that the libras shall be the same, so that there are 16 onzas to each libra, and not more; and that this shall be for all goods, and meat and fish; and all other things that are usually sold and may be sold by the libra; under penalty that whoever does otherwise, shall incur the penalties for using false weights.

[Arroba and quintal defined]

Also, that all things that may be sold in all my Kingdoms and Dominions, that there shall be 25 libra to every arroba, and not more nor less; and 4 arrobas of the aforesaid to each quintal, and that whoever does otherwise, shall incur such penalties.”

King John the Second in Madrid in the year 435, petition 31.

[Wine measure: arrobas, cántaras, azumbres, quartillos]

“Also, that the measure of wine; either in arrobas or in cántaras; and in azumbres and medias azumbres and quartillos and medios quartillos, shall be by the Toledo measure; and that in all my Kingdoms and Dominions wine shall not be purchased nor sold wholesale or retail, except by this measure, and no matter that some cities, towns, villages and places may say that they have the privilege and use and custom of selling or buying by bigger or smaller measures. If they still sell by these measures, they shall be subject to the said penalties.

[Measures of dry capacity]

Also, that all grain1 that may be sold or bought, shall be sold and bought by the measure of the city of Avila, and this for the hanegas, as well as for the celemines or quartillos; and that this shall be kept in all my Kingdoms and Dominions, no matter that they may say that they have the privilege, or use and custom of selling or buying by some other measure:

but if a person or persons have rents or obligations [payable in] grain, they shall pay that rent or obligation they incurred, according to the measure that was used at the time they contracted their obligation; but they shall not purchase or sell except by the said measure of the said city of Avila, under penalty that whoever does otherwise, shall incur said penalties.”

This law was afterwards confirmed by the Lord King John at the Cortes he held in the city of Toledo in the year 36, and also by the Lord King Henry our brother in the Cortes he held in the said city of Toledo 62 years ago; which we order to be kept and complied with according to what is contained therein: and in keeping them and complying with them, every person in these our Kingdoms shall use them, and the Justices shall enforce these measures in purchases and sales henceforth, and in debits and credits, and in accounts, and obligations and contracts; and censuses and leases that shall be made henceforth; it is agreed to make known, for the bread by the measure of Avila, that 12 celemines make up a fanega, and the half celemines to this ratio; and for the wine by the measure of Toledo, that has 8 azumbres per cántara. And to have all the Councils of the other cities and towns of our Kingdoms and the jurisdiction heads, to send to the cities of Toledo and Avila to take and agree on measures for bread and wine for them, equal to those of the aforesaid cities, and sealed with the seal of the city they were brought from; and that they be the measures of the Council, for bread, stone or wood with iron sheets, and for wine made of copper; and that they shall be received before a Scribe: and that in the future other measures for bread and wine that are to be made, shall be compliant with and equal to these same measures, and sealed, and not otherwise;

[Penalties for using unauthorized units]

and that whoever may measure by a measure other than such measures, for the first time this is proven, shall incur a penalty of a thousand maravedis, and that the said measure shall be broken in public, and that he shall be placed in the pillory; and that for the second time, he shall incur a penalty of three thousand maravedis, and ten days in chains; and for the third time he shall be given the penalty for a perjurer: and this penalty shall be applied to any carpenter or coppersmith, or any other craftsman who may make the measures for bread and wine.

[Instructions and penalties for scribes]

And to avoid the occasion for error, and because the aforesaid better be kept, we order and defend, that henceforth no Scribe shall be made to make or receive either contract or obligation to sell, or census or lease, or for any other cause concerning bread, unless in terms of the said Avila measure, nor concerning wine, except in terms of the Toledo measure; nor shall any Scribe receive nor sign any obligation or contract, or other writ that is done by the old measure, or by any other measure for bread and wine: under penalty that the person who contracts otherwise, shall pay double the amount of the contract or debt; and that the said obligation and contract shall itself be null and no longer in force nor have any effect, and for this we provide from this moment, that no matter that it be corroborated by oath or any other penalties and firmness; that the Scribe who does such a contract or obligation, shall lose the office of Scribe, and shall be unfit to occupy it henceforth, and shall pay for each time a penalty of ten thousand maravedis; and that of these penalties, one half shall be for Treasury, and the other half, shall be one half for the one who accuses him, and the other half for whoever sentences him and who executes the sentence.

And concerning the contracts made up to this moment, we order them to be paid by the said Avila and Toledo measures, in respect to how they are done, taking into consideration the other measures that have been provided and the commandments necessary to execute such contracts; that they shall be executed by hanegas and by cántaras of the said Avila and Toledo measures, and in this respect, and not by the old measures; neither Judges nor Scribes shall otherwise give commandments and judgments which they have to give; under penalty that for the first time each of the said Judges and Scribes shall incur a penalty of five thousand maravedis, and for the second time of ten thousand, and for the third time of twenty thousand maravedis, distributed in the aforesaid manner; and also, that the judgments and commandments given otherwise, shall be null and with no force or effect.

And we order those in our Council to seal this our letter and pragmatic sanction and our letters with our seal, and send them out as necessary to all those jurisdictions, and cities, towns and villages of these our Kingdoms. And also order the Justices of each of these cities, and villages and places, that each in their jurisdiction comply with the above and impose these penalties upon whoever may have incurred them. (Law 2. Title 13. Book 5. R)

1. The Spanish says “pan”, bread, but it is grain rather than baked bread which is measured in these units. The Diccionario of the Spanish Academy gives as one sense of pan: “pr. Gal. [Provincial de Galicia] Todas las semillas de que se hace PAN, menos el trigo.”

Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana. 10th ed.
La Academia Española.
Madrid: en la Imprenta Nacional, 1852. Page 504.

Ley III

D. Juan II. en Madrigal año 1438 pet. 12; y D. Felipe II. en las Córtes de Madrid de 563 cap. 81.

Modo de medir la sal, aceyte y otras especies por las medidas de Avila y Toledo.

Mandamos, que asimismo en todas las ciudades, villas y logares, tierras y señoríos de nuestros Reynos, que asimismo se vendan por la medida de pan de Avila la sal y legumbres, y todas las otras cosas que se hubieren de vender y medir por fanega y celemin; y que por las medidas del vino toledanas se vendan la miel, y todas las otras cosas que por semejantes medidas se hobieren de vender, so las penas contenidas en las ordenanzas por Nos fechas en la Villa de Madrid año 35, que son las contenidas en la ley precedente. Y mandamos, que la medida del aceyte sea igual en todo el Reyno; y que la arroba del aceyte tenga veinte y cinco libras, y la libra diez y seis onzas, y la libra quatro panillas ó quarterones, y cada panilla ó quarteron quatro onzas. (ley 3. tit. 13, lib. 5 R.)

 

King John II, in Madrigal, year 1438, petition 12; and King Philip II, at the Cortes of Madrid in 563 capitulations 81.

How to measure salt, oil and other spices using the Avila and Toledo measures.

We order, that also in all cities, towns and places, lands and dominions of our Kingdoms, that salt and vegetables, and all other things that may be sold and measured by fanega and celemín, be sold by the bread measure of Avila; and that honey and all similar things sold and measured, shall be sold by the wine measures of Toledo, under the penalties contained in ordinances issued by us in the Village of Madrid in the year 35, which are contained in the previous law. And we order that the measure of oil shall be the same throughout the whole Kingdom; and that the arroba of oil shall have 25 libras, and the libra 16 onzas, and the libra 4 panillas or quarterones, and each panilla or quarterón 4 onzas. (Law 3. Title 13, Book 5 R.)

Ley IV.

D. Cárlos I. y D.a Juana en Madrid año 1534 pet. 62.

Porque mas justificadamente se peudan executar las penas en las pragmáticas anteriores contenidas; mandamos, que los Corregidores y Justicias, luego que fueren recibidos á los oficios, fagan pregonar, que vengan todos á corregir y concertar las dichas medidas dentro de un término convenible; y aquel pasado, se guarde y execute lo proveido por las leyes y pragmáticas de nuestros Reynos. (ley 4. tit. 13. lib. 5, repetida por la ley 19. tit. 5. lib. 3. R.)

King Charles I and Queen Joanna in Madrid, year 1534, petition 62.

So that the penalties contained in the previous pragmatic sanctions may be executed with more justification, we order that Corregidores [magistrates] and Justices, after having received the official communication, have it proclaimed, and that everybody come to correct and agree on these measures within a suitable time, and this accomplished, what is provided for by the laws and pragmatic sanctions of our Kingdoms shall be observed and executed. (Law 4, Title 13, book 5, repeated by law 19, title 5, book 3. R.)

LEY V.

D. Cárlos IV. por órden de 26 de Enero inserta en circ. del Consejo de 20 de Febrero de 1801.

Igualacion de pesos y medidas para todo el Reyno por las normas que se expresan.

Llévese á efecto la igualacion de pesas y medidas que ha sido mandada en diferentes tiempos: y para que se logre la utilidad real de esta uniformidad con la menor incomodidad posible de los pueblos, se tomen por normas las pesas y medidas que estan en uso mas generalmente en estos Reynos, prefiriendo el evitar la confusión que, de alterarlas resultaria, al darles cierto orden y enlace systemático que se podría desear.

The equalization of weights and measures that has been ordered at different times shall be brought into effect: and in order to achieve the real usefulness of this uniformity with the least possible inconvenience to the people, the standard weights and measures that are most generally used in these kingdoms shall be considered, preferring to avoid the confusion that would result from altering and given them some order and systematic relations that would be desirable.

Estas normas son el patron del la vara que se conserva en el archivo de la ciudad de Burgos; el patron de la media fanega que se conserva en el archivo de la ciudad de Avila; los patrones de medidas de líquidos que se custodian en el archivo de la ciudad de Toledo, y el marco de las pesas que exîste en el archivo del Consejo.

These standards are the prototype of the vara that is preserved in the archive of the city of Burgos, the prototype of the media fanega which is preserved in the archive of the city of Avila, the prototypes of liquid measures that are in the custody of the archive of the city of Toledo, and the marco of the weights that is in the archive of the Consejo.

Las pesas y medidas que deberán pues ser de uso general en todos mis Reynos y Señoríos, y que en lo sucesivo se llamarán pesas y medidas Españolas, serán las siguientes.

The weights and measures that are to be generally used in all my Kingdoms and Dominions, and which henceforth shall be called Spanish weights and measures, are the following.

El pie será la raiz de todas las medidas de intervalos ó de longitud; y se dividírá, segun se acostumbra, en diez y seis dedos, y el dedo en mitad, quarta, ochava, y diez y seisava parte; e igualmente se dividírá el pie en doce pulgadas, y la pulgada en doce líneas.

The pie is the basis of all units of intervals or of length, and it shall be divided, as is customary, into 16 dedos, and the dedo into half, quarter, eighth and sixteenth parts, and also the pie is divided into 12 pulgadas, and the pulgada into 12 lineas.

La vara ó medida usual para el trato y comercio, y demas usos en que, se emplea, se compondrá de tres de dichos pies; y se dividirá, segun se acostumbra, en mitad quarta y media quarta ú ochava y media ochava, como tambien en tereias, medias tercias ó sexmas, y medias sexmas.

The vara or customary measure for trade and commerce, and other applications in which it is used, shall consist of three of the said pies; and it shall be divided, as customary, into one half, a quarta (one fourth), a media quarta or ochava, and a media ochava, and also in tercias [thirds], medias tercias or sexmas, and medias sexmas.

Para que la legua corresponda proximamente á lo que en toda España se ha llamado y llama legua, que es el camino que regularmentese anda en una hora, será dicha legua de veinte mil pies; la que se usará en todos los casos en que se trate de ella, sea en caminos Reales, en los Tribunales y fuera de ellos.

So that the legua soon matches what in all Spain has been called and is called legua, which is the length of way that is regularly walked in one hour, this legua will be made up by 20,000 pies; it will be used in all cases when it is referred to, either on Royal roads, in Courts and outside them.

El estadal para medir las tierras será de quatro varas ó doce pies de largo.

The estadal for measuring land is 4 varas or 12 pies in length.

La aranzada para medir las tierras será un quadro de veinte estadales de lado ó tendrá de superficie quatrocíentos estadales quadrados.

The aranzada for measuring land is a square 20 estadals on a side, or contains an area of 400 square estadals.

La fanega de tierra será un quadro de veinte y quatro estadales de lado, ó tendrá de superficie quinientos setenta y seis estadales quadrados: esta fanega de tierra se dividirá en doce celemines, y cada celemín de tierra en quatro quartos ó quartillos.

The fanega de tierra is a square 24 estadals on a side, or an area of 576 square estadals. This fanega de tierra shall be divided into 12 celemines, and each celemin of land into 4 quartos or quartillos.

Para medir todo género de granos, la sal y demas cosas secas, se usará el cahiz de doce fanegas, y la fanega de doce celemines.

La fanega se dividirá en dos medias fanegas y en quatro quartillas; y el celemin se dividirá en mitades sucesivas, según se acostumbra, con los nombres de medio celemín, quartillo, medio quartillo, ochavo, medio ochavo, y ochavillo.

For measuring all kinds of grain, salt, and other sorts of dry goods, the cahiz with 12 fanegas, and the fanega of 12 celemines, shall be used.The fanega is divided into 2  and into 4 quartillsl and the celemin is sucessively halved,

The fanega shall be divided into two media-fanegas and into four quartillas; and the celemín shall be divided into successive halves, following custom, with the names of medio celemín, quartillo, medio quartillo, ochavo, medio ochavo and ochavillo.

Para medir todo género de líquidos, á excepcion del aceyte, se usará la cántara ó arroba, y sus divisiones por mitades sucesivas, que son media cántara, quartilla, azumbre, media azumbre, quartillo, medio quartillo, y copa.

To measure all kinds of liquids, with the exception of oil, the cántara or the arroba, and its divisions by successive halves, which are media cántara, quartilla, azumbre, media azumbre, quartillo, medio quartillo and copa, shall be used.

El moyo será de diez y seis cántaras.

The moyo shall have 16 cántaras.

Las medidas para el aceyte estarán como hasta aquí arregladas al peso; y se usará como hasta ahora de la arroba y sus divisiones, que son media arroba, quarto y medio quarto de arroba, libra, media libra, quarteron ó panilla, y media panilla.

The measures for oil shall be as until now according to weight; and the arroba and its divisions, which are media arroba, quarto de arroba and medio quarto de arroba, libra, media libra, quarterón or panilla and media panilla shall be used as until now.

Para las cosas que se compran y, venden al peso se usará la libra de diez y seis onzas, la que se dividirá, segun se acostumbra, en mitades sucesivas, con los nombres de media libra, quarteron y medio quarteron. La onza se dividirá tambien en dos medias onzas, en quatro quartas, en ocho ochavas ó dracmas, y en diez y seis adarmes; y para los usos en que se necesita mayor division, se dividirá el adarme en tres tomines, y cada tomin en doce granos. La arroba de peso se compondrá de veinte y cinco libras, y el quintal será de quatro arrobas.

For those things that are bought and sold by weight, the libra with 16 onzas shall be used, divided, as is customary into successive halves, with the names of media libra, quarterón and medio quarterón. The onza is also divided into 2 medias onzas, into 4 quartas, into 8 ochavas or dracmas, and into 16 adarmes; and for those uses that require further division, the adarme shall be divided into 3 tomins, and each tomín into 12 granos. The weight arroba shall consist of 25 libras, and the quintal shall have 4 arrobas.

Los Médicos y Boticarios continuarán usando de la libra medicinal de doce onzas iguales á las onzas del marco Español, para evitar los daños que de alterarla podrian resultar á la salud pública.

Physicians and Apothecaries shall continue to use the medicinal libra with 12 onzas equal to the onzas of the Spanish marco, to prevent the damages to public health that might result from altering it.

King Charles IV, by order of the 26th January inserted in the notice of the Council of the 20th February 1801.

Equalization of weights and measures throughout the Kingdom by the rules that are expressed.

The equalization of weights and measures that has been ordered at different times shall be brought into effect: and in order to achieve the actual usefulness of this uniformity with the least possible discomfort to the people, the standard weights and measures that are most generally used in these kingdoms, shall be considered, preferring to avoid the confusion that would result from alteration, and giving them some desirable order and systematic relationships.

These standards are the standard of the vara which is kept in the archive of the city of Burgos; the standard of the half fanega that is kept in the archive of the city of Avila; the standard measures for liquids in custody of the archive of the city of Toledo, and the marco of the weights kept in the archive of the Council.

The weights and measures that are to be generally used in all my Kingdoms and Dominions, and which henceforth shall be called Spanish weights and measures, are the following.

The pie is the root of all measures of intervals or length; and it will be divided, as customary, into sixteen dedos, and the dedo into one half, a quarta, ochava (one eighth) and one sixteenth parts; and the pie shall also be divided into twelve pulgadas, and the pulgada into twelve líneas).

The vara or customary measure for trade and commerce, and other applications in which it is used, shall consist of three of the said pies; and it shall be divided, as customary, into one half, a quarta (one fourth), a media quarta or ochava (half quarter or one eighth) and a media ochava (half eighth), and also in tercias (thirds), medias tercias or sexmas (half thirds or one sixth) and medias sexmas (half sixths).

So that the legua soon matches what in all Spain has been called and is called legua, which is the distance that is regularly walked in one hour, this legua will be made up by twenty thousand pies; it will be used in all cases when it is referred to, either on Royal roads, in Courts and outside them. The estadal for measuring land is 4 varas or twelve pies in length. The aranzada for measuring land is a square of twenty estadals by side, or it will have an area of four hundred square estadals. The fanega de tierra is a square of twenty-four estadals by side, or an area of five-hundred seventy-six square estadals. This fanega de tierra shall be divided into twelve celemines, and each celemín of land into four quartos or quartillos. To measure all kinds of grain, salt and other dry goods, the cahiz with 12 fanegas, and the fanega with 12 celemines shall be used. The fanega shall be divided into two half fanegas and into four quartillas; and the celemín shall be divided into successive halves, as is customary, with the names of medio celemín, quartillo, medio quartillo, ochavo, medio ochavo and ochavillo.

To measure all kinds of liquids, with the exception of oil, the cántara or the arroba, and its divisions by successive halves, which are media cántara, quartilla, azumbre, media azumbre, quartillo, medio quartillo and copa shall be used.

The moyo shall have sixteen cántaras.

The measures for oil shall be as until now according to weight; and the arroba and its divisions, which are media arroba, quarto de arroba and medio quarto de arroba, libra, media libra, quarterón or panilla and media panilla shall be used as until now.

For those things that are bought and sold by weight, the libra with sixteen onzas shall be used, divided, as is customary into successive halves, with the names of media libra, quarterón and medio quarterón. The onza is also divided into two medias onzas, into four quartas, into eight ochavas or dracmas, and into sixteen adarmes; and for those uses that require further division, the adarme shall be divided into three tomins, and each tomín into twelve granos. The weight arroba shall consist of twenty-five libras, and the quintal shall have four arrobas.

Physicians and Apothecaries shall continue to use the medicinal libra with twelve onzas equal to the onzas of the Spanish marco, to prevent the damages to public health that might result by altering it.

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