adoption of the

Gregorian calendar

 

In England, dates in the Julian calendar that occur before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1752 are termed “old style.” The initials “O.S.” appearing after a date indicate it is in the Julian calendar. The initials “N.S.” or the phrase “Stylo novo” indicate the Gregorian calendar.

The initial correction made the difference between the Julian and Gregorian calendars 10 days.

The Sixteenth Century
Locality The day after became
Most Italian states 4 October 1582 15 October 1582
Savoy 21 December 1582 1 January 1583
Spain, including Spanish possessions, such as Mexico 4 October 1582 15 October 1582
Portugal 4 October 1582 15 October 1582
Luxembourg 14 December 1582 25 December 1582
France

French possessions (such as what became the “Louisiana Purchase”) used the Gregorian calendar from their founding.

9 December 1582 20 December 1582

(Edict of Henry III, 3 November 1582.)

Lorraine 9 December 1582 20 December 1582
Zeeland, Brabant, and the Staten Generaal 14 December 1582 25 December 1582
     
Limburg and southern provinces of the Netherlands (now Belgium) 20 December 1582

(also 21 December 1582)

31 December 1582

(also 1 January 1583)

Holland 1 January 1583 12 January 1583

The Plakaet of 10 December 1582 (Great Plakaet Boek, I, 395) called for the change to occur on 15 December 1582, but the estates changed it to 1 January.

Groningen 10 February 1583 21 February 1583

(Resolution dated 28 February 1583 [sic].)

Reverted to Julian in the summer of 1594. The Julian calendar remained in use until 1700.
Carinthia & Styria 14 December 1583 25 December 1583
Brixen, Salzburg & Tyrol 5 October 1583 16 October 1583
Sweden 1583
(later revoked) See 18th century.
Bohemia 6 January 1584 17 January 1584
Moravia 6 January 1584 17 January 1584
Catholic states in Germany 21 December 1582 1 January 1583
Catholic cantons of Switzerland 21 December 1582 1 January 1583
Poland 21 December 1585 1 January 1586

(State Papers, Cracow, 3 January 1586, Stylo novo.)

Hungary 21 October 1587 1 November 1587
Prussia Bond presents evidence that the Gregorian calendar was in use at Elbing by 1586.

 

The Seventeenth Century
Locality The day after became
Alsace 5 February 1682 16 February 1682
Strasbourg February 1682 1 March 1682 ?
Prussia 22 August 1610 2 September 1610

1700 was a leap year in the Julian calendar but not in the Gregorian, increasing the difference between the Julian and Gregorian calendars to 11 days.

The Eighteenth Century
Locality The day after became
Protestant states of Germany 18 February 1700

 

1 March 1700

1700, adoption by the imperial diet at Regensberg. Some of the Protestant states adopted the calendar in 1609.

Protestant cantons of Switzerland 31 December 1700 12 January 1701
Denmark 18 February 1700 1 March 1700

(State Papers, “Copenhagen, 2 May, 1702, S.N.”)

Norway 18 February 1700 1 March 1700
Gelderland 30 June 1700 12 July 1700
Utrecht 30 November 1700

1 December 1700

12 December 1700

Resolution dated 24 July 1770 (Utrecht Plakaet boek I, 457)

Overijssel 30 November 1700 12 December 1700

(Resolution dated 4 April 1700)

Groningen 31 December 1700 12 January 1701
Friesland 31 December 1700 12 January 1701
Drenthe 30 April 1701 12 May 1701
Great Britain
(and its colonies)
2 September 1752 14 September 1752
Adopted in 1751 by Act of Parliament. The story that riots broke out as people protested the loss of 11 days is a myth. See Robert Poole, Time's Alteration, London: UCL Press, 1988. Apparently, however, when Lord Macclesfield's son ran for office for the county of Oxford in 1754, the cry used by the opposition was “Give us back our eleven days which you've stolen.” Macclesfield was President of the Royal Society and a prominent supporter of the bill. See Numismatic Chronicle, 1882, page 356.
See Lord Chesterfield's description of introducing the bill to the House of Lords.
Sweden Early in the century, Sweden again decided to convert to the Gregorian calendar, this time gradually, by not observing leap years. This process would put them in sync with the Gregorian calendar in 1740.  But it didn't work out:
28 February 1700 1 March 1700 (omitted leap year, as planned)
28 February 1704 29 February 1704 (observed leap year when they shouldn't have)
28 February 1708 29 February 1708 (observed leap year when they shouldn't have)
29 February 1712 30 February 1712 (restored the day dropped in 1700, thus going back to the Julian calendar)
17 February 1753 (readoption) 1 March 1753
Finland 1753
Lorraine 16 February 1760 28 February 1760
Nova Scotia
Gregorian since circa 1605
13 October 1710 2 October 1710 (reverted to Julian)
2 September 1752 14 September 1752 (readopted Gregorian)

 

The Nineteenth Century
Locality The day after became
France 1 January 1806, reverted to the Gregorian calendar
Japan Use of the Gregorian calendar became permissible on 1 January 1873.
Egypt 1875  
Thailand 1889: Changed from former lunar calendar to a solar calendar based on the Gregorian calendar, but took Masayon (equivalent to April) as the first month of the year, and used an era (Ratanakosindr Sok, or Bangkok Era) based on the founding of Bangkok in 1782 ce by Chao Phya Chakkri, founder of the Chakkri dynasty. 1 April 1889 was named 1 Masayon 108. See also 20th century, below.

A second wave of adoptions occurred in Eastern Europe and the Far East in the early 20th century: (Listed alphabetically by country.)

The Twentieth Century
Albania December 1912  
Thailand 1913: the Buddhist Era was adopted (Butta Sakarat). 1 Masayon 2493 be would be 1 April 1950 ce.
Bulgaria 1 March 1916 14 April 1916
China 1911,
1949 (Communist gov't)  
Latvia During German occupation 1915??  
Greece 9 March 1924

some say 1923

23 March 1924
Iran 1925
Lithuania 1915
Estonia 31 January 1918 14 February 1918
Romania 31 March 1919 14 April 1919
Russia 31 January 1918 14 February 1918
By a decree of the Council of People's Commissars dated 25 January 1918. (Statesman’s Yearbook 1947, V.V. Tsybulsky, page 7.)
Turkey 1 Jan 1927, by vote of the Majlis on 26 December 1925. But some say 1926, 1927 or 1917
Yugoslavia 1919; some say 1924

 

Owen Gingerich.
The civil reception of the Gregorian calendar.
in G. V. Coyne, M. A. Hoskin and O. Pedersen, editors.
Gregorian Reform of the Calendar: Proceedings of the Vatican Conference to Commemorate its 400th Anniversary, 1582-1982.
Cittá del Vaticano, Europe: Pontificia Academia Scientiarum; Specola Vaticana,1983.

M. Hoskin.
The reception of the calendar by other churches.
in Gregorian Reform of the Calendar, cited above.

home | time index | search |  to email Sizes drawing of envelope |  acknowledgements | 
help | privacy | terms of use